Romanised Saṃskṛta Sūtra Glossary

sanskrta

A lesser known facet of the Yoga Texts and Freenotes section of the Website is the Romanised Saṃskṛta Core Glossary and Cross Reference Guide. It started life as word by word linked index for the online Yoga Sūtra verses offering a meaning and a cross Sūtra reference resource when exploring related verses.

However as more Yoga Related Texts were added to the online Database it was obvious that the glossary needed to include related terms from other textual sources that matched or correlated with those in the Yoga Sūtra. So the glossary now adds terms from related sources such as the Sāṃkhya Kārikā, the Bhagavad Gītā, the Gītārtha Saṃgraha and Haṭha Yoga Texts, though inevitably these will expand even further over time.

The core word is shown in Romanised Saṃskṛta  and Devanāgarī script, along with a suggested translation or translations where it may have several meanings within different contexts. This is complemented by cross referencing Similar and Opposite Words, Related Concepts and Collected Commentaries, all drawn together as themes around the Core Word, from the many posts around these topics on the Yoga Journal section of the website. This will hopefully help the reader navigate and utilise the ever increasing number of resources.

abhāva - non-appearance, non-existence
abhibhava - disappearance
abhijātasya - precious
abhimata - appropriate
abhiniveśa - the will to stay alive
abhivyakti - manifestation
ābhyantara - internal
abhyāsa - practice
ācārya - preceptor, spiritual teacher
ādara - enthusiasm
ādarśa - seeing
ādhāra - support
adhigama - attained
adhimātra - excessive
adhiṣthātṛtva - omnipotence
adhvan - way
adhyāsā - overlapping
adhyātma - inner essence
adhyātmika - concerning the essence
adhyayanam - recitation
ādi - and the rest
adṛṣta - unseen
āgama - testimony
agni - fire
agrya - pointedness
aham - I
ahaṃkāra - individuation
āhāra - eating
ahiṃsā - non-harming
ājñā - command
ajñāna - ignorance
ajñāta - not known
akalpitā - non-imaginary
ākāra - form / shape
akaraṇa - not making, effecting
ākāśa - space
akliṣṭa - don't afflict
akrama - non-sequential
akṛṣṇa - not black
akṣara - imperishable
ākṣepīn - transcends
akusīda - disinterested in gaining
alabdha - non-attainment
ālambana - supporting, resting on
ālasya - laziness
aliṅga - unmanifest
āloka - splendour
alpa - little
āma - uncooked
amṛtam - nectar
anabhighāta - not troubled
anāditva - beginninglessness
anāgata - not yet come
anāhata - unstuck, produced otherwise than by beating
ānanda - joy
ānandamaya - consisting of bliss
ananta - endless, boundless, eternal, infinite; the first serpent
ānantarya - succession
ānantya - due to endlessness
anāśaya - without seeds, deposits
anaṣṭa - not disappeared
anāstika - heterodox
anātman - other than essence
anavacchedā - not separated
anavacchinnā - not bound
anavadhāraṇa - not ascertained
anavasthitatvā - losing stability
aneka - other
aṅga - limb
aṇiman - minuteness
aniṣṭa - unwanted, undesirable, unfavourable
anitya - transitory
añjanatā - assume the colour of an object
annam - food
annamaya - consisting of food
anta - end (from ... to)
antar - internal
antara - other
antarāya - intervention, obstacle
antardhāna - disappearance
antya - final, last
aṇu - minute
anu - follow
anubhāvana - following cultivation
anubhūta - experience
anugama - follows
anuguṇa - similar qualities
anukāra - imitating
anuloma - with the grain
anumāna - inference
anumodita - by approval
anupaśya - observes
anupātin - following
anuśayin - consequence
anuṣṭhāna - performance
anuttama - unsurpassed
anvaya - connection
anya - other
anyatā - difference
anyatva - another
āpad - to bring into trouble or misfortune
apāna - downward air
aparāmṛṣṭa - untouched
aparānta - ultimate end, death
aparigrahā - non-grasping
apariṇāmitvā - non-transformative
āpatti - assumes
apavarga - emancipation
apekṣā - to look for
apeta - removed off
api - also
apramāṇaka - not perceivable
apratisaṃkrama - non-changing
aprayojaka - not the initiator
apuṇya - vice
āpūrā - flow
ariṣṭa - portents, omen
aroga - free from disease, healthy, well
ārogya - absence of illness
arogya - healthy
artha - purpose
arthatā - objects
arthavattva - significance, importance
āryā - type of verse metre
asaṃkhyeya - innumerable
asaṃkīrṇa - unblended
asaṃpramoṣa - retention
asaṃprayoga - disengagement
asaṃsarga - non-association
āsana - posture
asaṅga - non-association
āsanna - near
asat - unreal, wrong
āśaya - seed, deposit; resting place
āsevita - attend to
āśis - premordial desire
asmitā - the sense of 'I' am-ness
āśraya - correspondence
āśrayatva - corresponds
aṣṭa - eight
aṣṭāṅgā - eight limbs
asteya - non-stealing
asti - exists
āstika - orthodox
aśuci - impure
aśuddhi - impurity
aśukla - not white
āsura - demonic
āsvāda - tasting
aśvinī - horse
asya - his
atat - not that
atha - now; an auspicious and inceptive particle
atiprasaṅga - infinite coming together
atīta - past
ātmaka - taking the role of our essence
ātman - essence; the highest personal principle of life
ātmatā - nature; essence
atyanta - absolutely
āvaraṇa - covering
avasthā - state
avasthāna - abiding
āveśa - entering
avidyā - illusion
aviplavā - unwavering
avirati - over-indulgence
aviṣayī - not object
aviśeṣa - indistinct
avyapadeśya - undetermined
āyāma - stretching, extending; restraining, restrained
āyurveda - sacred lore of longevity
āyus - span of life
back to topbādhana - oppressed
bahis - external
bāhya - external
bala - strength
bandha - binding
bandhana - binding, tying, fettering
basti - bladder
bhagavat - divine
bhakti - devotion
bharā - carries
bhāsa - luminosity
bhastrikā - bellows
bhāṣya - commentary, exposition
bhava - re-emerge
bhāva - becoming
bhāvana - cultivation
bheda - divide, pierce
bhogā - worldly experience
bhrāmarī - relating to a bee
bhrānti - fallacious
bhūmi - stage
bhūmikatva - of a stage
bhūta - element; living being
bhūtatvā - elementalism / being-ness
bhuvana - world
bīja - seed
brahmacarya - continence
brahman - that which expands; the absolute, the eternal
brāhmaṇa - Brahmanical explanation of rules or directions for rites
bṛṃhaṇa - building
buddhi - comprehension
back to topca - and
cakra - wheel
cakṣus - eye
candra - moon
cāpalya - agitation, fickleness, unsteadiness
catur - four
caturtha - fourth
cet - if so
cetanā - consciousness
chidra - in the breaks / intervals
cikitsā - therapeutics
cit - awareness, to cause to comprehend, to observe, perceive
citra - speckled
citta - psyche; heart as the seat of feelings and sensations
back to topdaiva - divine
dakṣiṇa - right, southern
dāna - the act of giving
darśana - view; seeing
darśin - one who has seen
dasa - ten
daurmanasya - negative thinking
deha - the body
deśa - place
devanāgarī - divine city script
devatā - divinity
dhāraṇā - concentration
dharma - essential qualities; highest duty
dharmīn - substratum
dhauti - the act of washing
dhruva - pole star
dhyāna - meditation
dhyāta - that which meditates
dhyeya - to be meditated on
dīpti - illuminates
dīrgha - long
divya - divine
doṣa - affection, defect, fault, biological humours
draṣṭṛ - seer
dṛḍha - firm
dṛś - to see
dṛśi - seeing
dṛṣṭa - seen
dṛśya - the seen
dṛśyatva - due to the quality of the seen
duḥkha - suffering, pain, sorrowful
dvadasa - twelve
dvandva - pair of opposites
dveṣa - aversion
dvi - two
back to topejayatva - unsteadiness
eka - one
ekatānatā - continuity
ekatra - in the same place
ekatvā - uniqueness
eṣām - of these
eṣa - which
etayā - by this
etena - by this
eva - thus
back to topgamana - travel
gati - motion
gāyatrī - chant metre
gheraṇḍa - name of a teacher
gītā - song
graha - grasp
grahaṇa - the process of grasping
grahītṛ - that which is grasping
grāhya - that which is grasped
granthi - knot
grata - pointedness
guṇa - attributes of nature; qualities
guru - teacher
guhya - mystery
back to tophāna - giving up
hasta - hand
hasti - elephant
haṭha - force, forceful
hetu - cause
hetutvā - causality
heya - overcome
hiṃsā - harming
hlāda - delightful
hṛdaya - heart
back to topicchā - will, desire, inclination, wish
iḍā - comfort, libation
indriya - senses
iṣṭa - chosen
īśvara - lord
itara - others
itaratra - at other times
itaretara - one with the other
iti - thus
iva - as if
back to topja - born
jala - water
jālandhara - web holding
janman - birth
japa - repetition
jāti - existence
javitva - fleetness
jaya - mastery
jāyante - are born
jīva - living
jivha - tongue
jña - knowing
jñāna - knowing; knowledge; higher knowledge
jñāta - known
jñātṛtva - knowingness
jñeya - to be known
jugupsā - disdain
jvalana - glow
jyotiśmant - luminescence
jyotis - light
back to topkaivalya - abstraction
kāla - time
kāma - desire, longing
kanda - bulb
kaṇṭaka - thorns
kaṇṭha - throat
kapālabhāti - skull shining
kapha - phlegm principle
karaṇa - making, effecting
kāraṇa - reasons, cause
karaṇī - form, aspect
kārita - brought about
kāritva - quality of activity
karman - action
karuṇā - compassion
kathaṃtā - wherefore
kāya - body
khyāti - recognition
kiṃ - how
kleśa - afflictions
kliṣṭa - afflict
krama - sequence
kriyā - activity; medical treatment
krodha - anger
kṛta - completed
kṣaṇa - moment
kṣaya - diminish, wasting or wearing away
kṣema - giving rest or ease or security
kśetra - the field
kṣetrika - like a farmer
kṣīṇa - reduced
kṣīyate - dissolves
kṣudh - hunger
kumbhaka - retention
kuṇḍalinī - annulate
kūpa - well
kūrma - tortoise
back to toplābha - attained
lāghava - lightness
laghu - lightness
lakṣaṇa - characteristic, attribute
laṅghana - lightening
lāvaṇya - grace
laya - absorbed
liṅga - manifest, sign, gender
lobha - greed
back to topmadhya - moderateness
madhyamā - middling, intermediate
mahā - great
mahāmudrā - great seal
mahattva - greatest
maitrī - friendliness
makaranda - nectar
mala - dust, dirt
mālā - a string of beads
manana - thoughtful
manas - mind
maṇḍala - circle, orb
maṇi - gem
maṇipūra - jewel city
manomaya - consisting of mind
mantra - sacred formula
mārga - way
marman - vulnerable point
mātra - only
matsara - jealousy
maya - consisting of
megha - cloud pouring
mīmāṃsā - investigation of the proper interpretation of the Vedic texts
mithyā - false
moha - delusion
mokṣa - liberation
mṛdu - mildness
muditā - gladness
mudrā - seal
mukha - head
mūla - root
mūlādhāra - root support
mūrdha - crown of the head
back to topna - not
nābhi - navel
nāḍī - channel
nairantarya - without interruption
nāma - name
naṣṭa - disappeared
naulī - to churn
nava - nine
netī - the drawing of a thread through the nose and mouth
nibandhanīn - binding
nidrā - deep sleep
nimitta - instrumental cause
nimna - inclined towards
niratiśaya - unsurpassed
nirbhāsā - shines forth
nirbīja - without seed
nirgrāhya - permanently grasped
nirguṇa - without attributes, qualities
nirmāṇa - created
nirodha - to contain, enclose, confine, restrain
nirupa - non-forming
nirvicārā - refined subtle reflection
nirvitarka - refined gross deliberation
niṣṭhā - persistance
nitya - eternal
nityatvā - eternality
nivṛtti - cessation
niyama - observances
nyāsa - placing
nyāya - syllogistic argument
back to topom - mystical symbol, sacred exclamation
oṣadhi - blessed herbs, medicinal herbs
back to toppāda - section; a quarter, a fourth part; foot, leg
pañca - five
pañcataya - fivefold
paṅka - mud
panthān - path
para - higher, other
parama - highest, most
paramparā - an uninterrupted row or series, order, succession, continuation
paridṛṣṭa - seen to be
parigraha - posessiveness
parīkṣā - examination
pariṇāma - transformation
paripāka - digestion, completely cooked
pariśuddhi - purified
paritāpa - distress, scorching
parivṛtti - turning, revolution
parvan - phase
paryavasāna - ultimate limit
paścimatāna - west or back stretch
pātañjali - celebrated as a compiler of the yoga sūtra or as a grammarian
phala - fruit
piṅgalā - tawny-red colour
pipāsā - thirst
pitta - bile principle
prabhu - master, mighty, powerful
pracāra - manifestation, appearance, coming forth, spreading
pracchardana - lengthening the exhale
pradhāna - the most important or essential part; unevolved matter, original source
prādurbhāva - appearance
prāgbhāra - propensity
prati - with regard to
prajñā - insight
prakāśa - brightness
prakṛti - process of matter
pramāda - carelessness
pramāṇa - right perception
prāṇa - breath, inward air, vital force
prāṇamaya - consisting of vital force
praṇava - sacred
prāṇāyāma - extending the breath
praṇidhāna - dedication; to place down; in front of
prānta - final
prārthanā - prayer, to request, to petition
prasāda - serenity
prasādana - calming
prasaṃkhyāna - omniscience
prasaṅgā - towards association
praśānta - serene
praśvāsā - exhalation
prasupta - latent
prathamā - primary, initial, first
pratibandhī - oppose
prātibhā - intuition
pratikriyā - opposite activity, counteraction, compensation
pratiloma - opposite grain
pratipakṣa - opposite side
pratipatti - ascertainment
pratiprasava - going back to their origin
pratiṣedha - counteracting
pratiṣṭha - established
pratiyogīn - corresponding
pratyāhāra - withdrawal from the senses
pratyak - turning inwards
pratyakṣa - through the senses
pratyaya - psychic activity
prauḍha - strong; advanced in youth; audacious, bold, proud
pravibhāga - separation
pravṛtti - finer cognition
prayatna - continued effort
prayoga - connection
prayojaka - initiator
punar - again
puṇya - virtue
pūraka - inhale
pūrṇimā - the night or day of full moon
purohita - front placed
puruṣa - animating principle, self, consciousness, spirit
puruṣottama - supreme spirit
pūrva - preceding
pūrvatāna - east or front stretch
back to toprāga - attraction
rahasya - secret
rāja - sovereign
rajas - exciting
rakṣaṇa - protecting
rasa - disposition
ratna - jewels
recaka - exhale
roga - disease, infirmity, sickness
rogya - related to or connected with disease, producing sickness, unwholesome
ṛta - truth
ruḍha - springing up
rūpa - form
rūpatvā - character
rūta - cry of
back to topsa - this
sabīja - with seed
sadā - always
sādhaka - efficient, someone who follows a particular sādhana
sādhana - means to accomplish
sādhāraṇatvā - common
saguṇa - with attributes, qualities
sahabhuva - accompany
sahavāsa - dwelling together
sākṣāt - directly seeing
sālambana - supporting
samā - equal, constant
samādhi - integration
samāhita - one who has collected his thoughts, devout, steadfast, firm
samāna - digestive air, middle breath
samāpatti - coming together, unity
samāpti - conclusion
samatvam - equanimity
samavṛtti - equal movement
samaya - circumstance
saṃbandha - connection
saṃbodha - understanding
saṃgṛhītatvā - connection
saṃhananatvā - robustness
saṃhara - drawing together , contracting
saṃhatya - having combined
saṃhitā - collection
saṃjñā - acknowledgment
saṃkalpa - intention, volition, determination
saṃkara - completely mixed
saṃkhyā - enumeration
saṃkīrṇā - interspersed, intermixed
saṃmoha - bewilderment
saṃnidhi - in the presence
saṃnyāsa - renunciation
saṃpat - perfection, destiny
saṃprajñāta - total knowing
saṃprayoga - total joining together
saṃsāra - going or wandering through, passing through a succession of states
saṃśaya - doubt
saṃskāra - tendencies, psychological imprint, mental impression, habitual potency.
saṃtoṣa - contentment
saṃvedanā - to experience; completely knowing
saṃvega - intensity, excitement
saṃvid - an understanding
sāmya - equal
saṃyama - complete restraint
saṃyoga - conjunction
saṅga - association
saṃskṛta - ancient indic language
śānta - quiescent
sapta - seven
saptadhā - sevenfold
sārūpya - conformity
sarva - all
sarvāṅgāsana - all parts posture
sarvathā - in every way, at all times
sat - real, true, right
sati - being
satkāra - reverence
sattva - clarity
satya - truthfulness
saumanasya - open-mindedness
savicārā - unrefined subtle reflection
savitarkā - unrefined gross deliberation
śabda - words
śaithilya - relaxation
śakti - power
śamana - palliating, allaying
śānti - peace
śarīra - body
ṣaṣ - six
śāsana - teachings
śāstra - precept, rules, manual, compendium, book or treatise
śauca - cleanliness
śava - corpse, dead body
śavāsana - corpse pose
śeṣa - remainder
śikṣaṇa - the act of learning
śīla - nature
śītalī - cooling
śloka - type of verse metre
śodhana - cleansing, refining, purifying
śraddhā - faith
śrāvaṇa - hearing
śravika - heard spiritual teachings
śrī - blessed
śrotra - ear, act of hearing
śruta - oral transmission
śuci - pure
śuddha - pure
śūnya - empty
śvāsa - inhalation
siddha - accomplished one
siddhi - accomplishment
śīrṣāsana - the head posture
sītkārī -
smaya - conceit
smṛti - remembrance; memory; mindfulness
sṛṣṭi - creation
stambha - suspension
stha - abiding
sthairya - steadfastness, steadiness
sthāna - site
sthānin - high position
sthira - steady
sthiti - staying, maintenance
sthūla - grossness
styāna - dullness
sukha - happiness; comfortable; pleasantness
sūkṣma - subtle
sūrya - sun
suṣumnā - artery
sūtra - thread
sva - own
svabhāva - disposition
svadharma - own highest duty
svādhiṣṭhāna - ones own place
svādhyāya - self-study
svāmin - owner
svapna - dreams
svarūpa - own character
svastha - self abiding
svatantra - independence
syãt - could be
back to toptadā - then
tamas - obscuring
tantra - depending on, framework
tanū - attenuation
tāpa - craving
tapas - self-discipline
tārā - star
tāraka - liberating
tārāvalī - a multitude of stars
tāsām - of these
tasmin - in this
tasya - its
tat - that
tatas - hence
tatra - there
tattva - principle; thatness
tayoḥ - of both
te - these
tīvra - extreme
trāṭakam - fixing the eyes on an object
traya - the three
tri - three
trividha - three fold
tu - moreover
tūla - cotton
tulya - sameness
tyāga - forsaken
back to topubhaya - both
udāna - upward air
udāra - aroused
udaya - arising
uḍḍīyāna - flying up
udita - uprisen
ujjāyī - upwards victory
ukrānti - going above
ukta - it is said
upa - near to
upadeśa - instruction, teaching
upalabdhi - apprehension
upanimantraṇa - invitation
upaniṣat - to sit down near to; esoteric doctrine; a class of philosophical writings
uparāga - colours
uparakta - coloured
upāsana - stay near, worship
upasargā - impediments
upasthāna - appear
upāya - approach
upekṣā - disinterest
upekṣitvā - expectation
utpannā - arises
uttara - other
back to top - or
vācaka - expression
vāhī - continuous
vāhitā - flow
vaira - animosity
vairãgya - dispassion
vaiśāradya - maturation
vajra - adamantine
vama - left
varaṇa - surrounding
vārtā - smelling
vāsanā - latent impressions
vaśīkāra - mastery
vastu - substance
vaśyatā - control
vāta - wind principle
vaya - age
vāyu - wind element
veda - sacred lore
vedana - touching
vedāṅga - limbs of the Veda
vedanīya - experienced
vedānta - conclusion of the sacred lore
vibhāga - distinction
vibhakta - separate
vibhūti - special manifestation
vicāra - subtle reflection
viccheda - dividing
vicchinna - inconsistent
videha - discarnate
vidhāraṇā - retention
vidvāṃs - wise person
vidyā - true knowledge
vihāra - recreation
vijñāna - special knowing, comprehension
vijñānamaya - consisting of special knowing
vikalpa - imagination
vikaraṇa - without instruments
vikṣepa - distraction
viloma - against the grain
viniyoga - application
vinyāsa - special placing
vipāka - results
viparīta - reversed , inverted
viparyaya - wrong perception
viprakṛṣṭa - distant
virāma - cessation
virodhā - opposing
vīrya - vigour
viṣāda - despair
viṣamavṛtti - unequal movement
viṣayavant - as an object
viśeṣa - distinct
viṣaya - object
viśokā - free from sorrow
viśuddhi - special purity
viśva - universal
vīta - free
vitarka - gross deliberation, negative deliberation
vitṛṣṇasya - absence of thirst
viveka - discrimination
vivekin - discerner
viyoga - unyoking, separation
vrata - vow
vṛtti - fluctuation; turned; set in motion; profession
vyādhi - disorder
vyākhyātā - explained
vyakta - visible
vyāna - circulatory air
vyavahita - concealed
vyūha - arrangement
vyutthāna - turned outward
back to topyājñavalkya - ancient sage
yama - restraints
yathā - as
yatna - effort
yoga - the act of yoking
yogyatva - capability
yogyatā - fitness
yukta - connection, skilful
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“Better a cruel truth than a comfortable delusion.”
Edward Abbey