Yoga Sūtra of Patañjali

Chapter 2 Title:

साधनपादः

sādhana-pādaḥ

The section on the Means to accomplish.

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Sūtra 1:

तपः स्वाध्यायेश्वरप्रणिधानानि क्रियायोगः ॥१॥

tapaḥ svādhyāya-īśvara-praṇidhānāni kriyā-yogaḥ ||1||

The activities of Yoga are self-discipline, self-study and dedication to the lord.

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Sūtra 2:

समाधिभावनार्थः क्लेश तनूकरणार्थश्च ॥२॥

samādhi-bhāvana-arthaḥ kleśa-tanū-karaṇa-arthaḥ ca ||2||

Its purpose is cultivating integration,
effecting an attenuation of the afflictions.

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Sūtra 3:

अविद्यास्मितारागद्वेषाभिनिवेशः क्लेशाः ॥३॥

avidyā-asmitā-rāga-dveṣa-abhiniveśāḥ kleśāḥ ||3||

The afflictions are illusion, the sense of ‘I’ am-ness, attraction,
aversion and the will to stay alive.

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Sūtra 4:

अविद्या क्षेत्रमुत्तरेषाम् प्रसुप्ततनुविच्छिन्नोदाराणाम् ॥४॥

avidyā kśetram-uttareṣāṃ prasupta-tanu-vicchinna-udārāṇām ||4||

Illusion is the field for the others whether they are latent, attenuated, inconsistent or aroused.

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Sūtra 5:

अनित्याशुचिदुःखानात्मसु नित्यशुचिसुखात्मख्यातिरविद्या ॥५॥

anitya-aśuci-duḥkha-anātmasu nitya-śuci-sukha-ātma-khyātiḥ avidyā ||5||

Illusion is recognising what is transitory, impure, suffering
and other than essence, as eternal, pure, happiness and essence.

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Sūtra 6:

दृग्दर्शनशक्त्योरेकात्मतैवास्मिता ॥६॥

dṛg-darśana-śaktyoḥ-eka-ātmatā-iva-asmitā ||6||

The sense of ‘I’ am-ness is when the powers of seer and seeing
are as if one nature.

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Sūtra 7:

सुखानुशयी रागः ॥७॥

sukha-anuśayī rāgaḥ ||7||

Attraction is the consequence of happiness.

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Sūtra 8:

दुःखानुशयी द्वेषः ॥८॥

duḥkha-anuśayī dveṣaḥ ||8||

Aversion is the consequence of suffering.

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Sūtra 9:

स्वरस्वाहि विदुषोऽपि समारूढोऽभिनिवेशः ॥९॥

sva-rasa-vāhī viduṣaḥ api samā-ruḍhaḥ abhiniveśaḥ ||9||

The will to stay alive is a continuous self-disposition;
constantly springing up, even in the wise person.

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Sūtra 10:

ते प्रतिप्रसवहेयाः सूक्ष्माः ॥१०॥

te pratiprasava-heyāḥ sūkṣmāḥ ||10||

These are subtle and are overcome by going back to their origin.

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Sūtra 11:

ध्यान हेयाः तद्वृत्तयः ॥११॥

dhyāna-heyāḥ tat-vṛttayaḥ ||11||

These fluctuations are overcome by meditation.

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Sūtra 12:

क्लेशमूलः कर्माशयो दृष्टादृष्टजन्मवेदनीयः ॥१२॥

kleśa-mūlaḥ karma-āśayaḥ-dṛṣta-adṛṣta-janma-vedanīyaḥ ||12||

Afflictions, rooted in the deposits of actions,
are experienced in seen and unseen birth.

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Sūtra 13:

सति मूले तद्विपाको जात्यायुर्भोगाः ॥१३॥

sati mūle tat-vipākaḥ jāti-āyur-bhogāḥ ||13||

Being the root, that results in existence, span of life and worldly experience.

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Sūtra 14:

ते ह्लाद परितापफलाः पुण्यापुण्यहेतुत्वात् ॥१४॥

te hlāda-paritāpa-phalāḥ puṇya-apuṇya-hetutvāt ||14||

These fruits are delightful or distressful,
based on virtuous or non-virtuous causalities.

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Sūtra 15:

परिणाम ताप संस्कार दुःखैः गुणवृत्तिविरोधाच्च दुःखमेव सर्वं विवेकिनः ॥१५॥

pariṇāma-tāpa-saṃskāra-duḥkhaiḥ guṇa-vṛtti-virodhāt-ca duḥkham-eva sarvaṃ vivekinaḥ ||15||

Indeed for the discriminating person all is suffering,
due to the suffering from transformation, craving and tendencies;
and the opposing fluctuations in the activities of the attributes of nature.

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Sūtra 16:

हेयं दुःखमनागतम् ॥१६॥

heyaṃ duḥkham-anāgatam ||16||

The suffering not yet come must be overcome.

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Sūtra 17:

द्रष्टृदृश्ययोः संयोगो हेयहेतुः ॥१७॥

draṣṭṛ-dṛśyayoḥ saṃyogaḥ heya-hetuḥ ||17||

The cause of what must be overcome is the conjunction of the seer and the seen.

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Sūtra 18:

प्रकाशक्रियास्थितिशीलं भूतेन्द्रियात्मकं भोगापवर्गार्थं दृश्यम् ॥१८॥

prakāśa-kriyā-sthiti-śīlaṃ bhūta-indriya-ātmakaṃ bhoga-apavarga-arthaṃ dṛśyam ||18||

The seen has the qualities of brightness, activity and stay,
its nature is elements and senses,
taking the role of our essence
its purpose is worldly enjoyment and emancipation.

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Sūtra 19:

विशेषाविशेषलिङ्गमात्रालिङ्गानि गुणपर्वाणि ॥१९॥

viśeṣa-aviśeṣa-liṅga-mātra-aliṅgāni-guṇa-parvāṇi ||19||

The distinct, the indistinct, the manifest alone and the unmanifest
are the phases of the attributes of nature.

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Sūtra 20:

द्रष्टा दृशिमात्रः शुद्धोऽपि प्रत्ययानुपश्यः ॥२०॥

draṣṭā dṛśi-mātraḥ śuddhaḥ api-pratyaya-anupaśyaḥ ||20||

The seer alone sees, although pure it observes through psychic activity.

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Sūtra 21:

तदर्थ एव दृश्यस्यात्मा ॥२१॥

tat-artha eva-dṛśyasya-ātmā ||21||

That purpose of the seen is indeed for our essence.

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Sūtra 22:

कृतार्थं प्रतिनष्टंप्यनष्टं तदन्य साधारणत्वात् ॥२२॥

kṛta-arthaṃ prati-naṣṭam-api-anaṣṭaṃ tat-anya-sādhāraṇatvāt ||22||

With regard to its purpose completed it again disappears,
even though it is not disappeared,
that being common for others.

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Sūtra 23:

स्वस्वामिशक्त्योः स्वरूपोप्लब्धिहेतुः संयोगः ॥२३॥

sva-svāmi-śaktyoḥ svarūpa-upalabdhi-hetuḥ saṃyogaḥ ||23||

Conjunction is the cause of apprehension of the own character
of the powers of the owned and the owner.

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Sūtra 24:

तस्य हेतुरविद्या ॥२४॥

tasya hetuḥ avidyā ||24||

Its cause is illusion.

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Sūtra 25:

तदभाबात्संयोगाभावो हानं तद्दृशेः कैवल्यम् ॥२५॥

tat-abhāvāt-saṃyoga-abhāvaḥ hānaṃ tat-dṛśeḥ kaivalyam ||25||

That non-appearance is the non-appearance of the conjunction,
that giving up is the seer in its abstraction.

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Sūtra 26:

विवेकख्यातिरविप्लवा हानोपायः ॥२६॥

viveka-khyātiḥ aviplavā-hāna-upāyaḥ ||26||

Unwavering recognition of discrimination is the approach for giving up.

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Sūtra 27:

तस्य सप्तधा प्रान्तभूमिः प्रज्ञ ॥२७॥

tasya saptadhā-prānta-bhūmiḥ prajñā ||27||

Its final stage a sevenfold knowing.

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Sūtra 28:

योगाङ्गानुष्ठानादशुद्धिक्षये ज्ञानदीप्तिराविवेकख्यातेः ॥२८॥

yoga-aṅga-anuṣṭhānāt aśuddhi-kṣaye jñāna-dīptiḥ āviveka-khyāteḥ ||28||

From performance of the limbs of Yoga the impurities diminish
and knowing illuminates up to recognition of discrimination.

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Sūtra 29:

यम नियमासन प्राणायाम प्रत्याहार धारणा ध्यान समाधयोऽष्टावङ्गानि ॥२९॥

yama-niyama-āsana-prāṇāyāma-pratyāhāra-dhāraṇā-dhyāna-samādhayaḥ aṣṭau-aṅgāni ||29||

Restraints, observances, posture, extending the breath,
withdrawal from the senses, concentration, meditation and integration
are the eight limbs.

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Sūtra 30:

अहिंसासत्यास्तेय ब्रह्मचर्यापरिग्रहाः यमाः ॥३०॥

ahiṃsā-satya-asteya-brahmacarya-aparigrahāḥ yamāḥ ||30||

Non-harming, truthfulness, non-stealing, continence
and non-grasping are the restraints.

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Sūtra 31:

जातिदेशकालसमयानवच्छिन्नाः सार्वभौमामहाव्रतम् ॥३१॥

jāti-deśa-kāla-samaya-anavacchinnāḥ sārva-bhaumāḥ mahā-vratam ||31||

All stages not bound by existance, place, time or circumstance, a great vow

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Sūtra 32:

शौच संतोष तपः स्वाध्यायेश्वरप्रणिधानानि नियमाः ॥३२॥

śauca-saṃtoṣa-tapaḥ svādhyāya-īśvara-praṇidhānāni niyamāḥ ||32||

Cleanliness, contentment, self-discipline, self-study
and dedication to the lord are the observances.

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Sūtra 33:

वितर्कबाधने प्रतिपक्षभावनम् ॥३३॥

vitarka-bādhane pratipakṣa-bhāvanam ||33||

When oppressed by negative deliberation, cultivate the opposite side.

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Sūtra 34:

वितर्का हिंसादयः कृतकारितानुमोदिता लोभक्रोधमोहापूर्वका मृदुमध्य अधिमात्रा दुःखाज्ञानानन्तफला इति प्रतिपक्षभावनम् ॥३४॥

vitarkāḥ hiṃsā-ādayaḥ kṛta-kārita-anumoditāḥ lobha-krodha-moha-pūrvakāḥ mṛdu-madhya-adhimātrāḥ duḥkha-ajñāna-ananta-phalāḥ iti pratipakṣa-bhāvanam ||34||

Negative deliberation such as harming and the rest;
may be done, brought about, or by approval;
is preceded by greed, anger or delusion;
may be mild, moderate or excessive;
its infinite fruits are suffering and ignorance;
thus cultivate the opposite side.

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Sūtra 35:

अहिंसाप्रतिष्ठायं तत्सन्निधौ वैरत्याघः ॥३५॥

ahiṃsā-pratiṣṭhāyāṃ tat-saṃnidhau vaira-tyāgaḥ ||35||

In the presence of that established in non-harming animosity is forsaken.

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Sūtra 36:

सत्यप्रतिष्थायं क्रियाफलाश्रयत्वम् ॥३६॥

satya-pratiṣṭhāyāṃ kriyā-phala-āśrayatvam ||36||

When established in truthfulness the fruit corresponds to the activity.

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Sūtra 37:

अस्तेयप्रतिष्ठायां सर्वरत्नोपस्थानम् ॥३७॥

asteya-pratiṣṭhāyāṃ sarva-ratna-upasthānam ||37||

When established in non-stealing all jewels appear.

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Sūtra 38:

ब्रह्मचर्य प्रतिष्ठायां वीर्यलाभः ॥३८॥

brahmacarya-pratiṣṭhāyāṃ vīrya-lābhaḥ ||38||

When established in continence vigour is attained.

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Sūtra 39:

अपरिग्रहस्थैर्ये जन्मकथंता संबोधः ॥३९॥

aparigraha-sthairye janma-kathaṃtā-saṃbodhaḥ ||39||

When steadfastness in non-grasping understanding of the wherefore of birth.

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Sūtra 40:

शौचात् स्वाङ्गजुगुप्सा परैरसंसर्गः ॥४०॥

śaucāt-sva-aṅga-jugupsā paraiḥ asaṃsargaḥ ||40||

From cleanliness disdain for own body, non-association with others.

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Sūtra 41:

सत्त्वशुद्धिः सौमनस्यैकाग्र्येन्द्रियजयात्मदर्शन योग्यत्वानि च ॥४१॥

sattva-śuddhi-saumanasya-eka-agrya-indriya-jaya-ātma-darśana-yogyatvāni ca ||41||

From purity of clarity, open-mindedness, one-pointedness,
mastery of the senses and capability for seeing the essence.

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Sūtra 42:

संतोषातनुत्तमस्सुखलाभः ॥४२॥

saṃtoṣāt-anuttamaḥ sukha-lābhaḥ ||42||

From contentment unsurpassed happiness is attained.

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Sūtra 43:

कायेन्द्रियसिद्धिरशुद्धिक्षयात् तपसः ॥४३॥

kāya-indriya-siddhiḥ aśuddhi-kṣayāt-tapasaḥ ||43||

From self-discipline impurities diminish
and accomplishment in the body and senses.

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Sūtra 44:

स्वाध्यायादिष्टदेवता संप्रयोगः ॥४४॥

svādhyāyāt-iṣṭa-devatā-saṃprayogaḥ ||44||

From self-study total joining together with chosen deity.

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Sūtra 45:

समाधि सिद्धिःीश्वरप्रणिधानात् ॥४५॥

samādhi-siddhiḥ īśvara-praṇidhānāt ||45||

From dedication to the lord, accomplishment in intregration.

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Sūtra 46:

स्थिरसुखमासनम् ॥४६॥

sthira-sukham-āsanam ||46||

Steady and comfortable is posture.

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Sūtra 47:

प्रयत्नशैथिल्यानन्तसमापत्तिभ्याम् ॥४७॥

prayatna-śaithilya-ananta-samāpattibhyām ||47||

Both relaxation of continued effort and unity in infinity.

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Sūtra 48:

ततो द्वङ्द्वानभिघातः ॥४८॥

tataḥ dvandva-anabhighātaḥ ||48||

From that not troubled by the pair of opposites.

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Sūtra 49:

तस्मिन् सति श्वासप्रश्वास्योर्गतिविच्छेदः प्राणायामः ॥४९॥

tasmin-sati-śvāsa-praśvāsayoḥ gati-vicchedaḥ prāṇāyāmaḥ ||49||

Being in this,
dividing the motion of the inhalation and the exhalation
is extending the breath.

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Sūtra 50:

बाह्याभ्यन्तरस्थम्भ वृत्तिः देशकालसन्ख्याभिः परिदृष्टो दीर्घसूक्ष्मः ॥५०॥

bāhya-ābhyantara-stambha-vṛttiḥ deṣa-kāla-saṃkhyābhiḥ paridṛṣṭaḥ dīrgha-sūkṣmaḥ ||50||

The external, internal and suspension fluctuations
are seen to be long and subtle
through place, time and number.

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Sūtra 51:

बाह्याभ्यन्तर विषयाक्षेपी चतुर्थः ॥५१॥

bāhya-ābhyantara-viṣaya-ākṣepī caturthaḥ ||51||

The fourth transcends the external and internal as an object.

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Sūtra 52:

ततः क्षीयते प्रकाशावरणम् ॥५२॥

tataḥ kṣīyate prakāśa-āvaraṇam ||52||

From that, the covering of the light dissolves.

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Sūtra 53:

धारणासु च योग्यता मनसः ॥५३॥

dhāraṇāsu ca yogyatā manasaḥ ||53||

And fitness of the mind for concentration.

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Sūtra 54:

स्वविषयासंप्रयोगे चित्तस्य स्वरूपानुकारैवेन्द्रियाणां प्रत्याहारः ॥५४॥

sva-viṣaya-asaṃprayoge cittasya svarūpa-anukāraḥ iva-indriyāṇām pratyāhāraḥ ||54||

The disengagement from the own object of the psyche,
as if imitating the own character of the senses,
is withdrawal from the senses.

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Sūtra 55:

ततः परमावश्यता इन्द्रियाणाम् ॥५५॥

tataḥ paramā vaśyatā-indriyāṇām ||55||

From that, best control of the senses.

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Closing Verse:

इति पतञ्जल योग दर्षने साधनपादः

iti pātañjala yoga darśane sādhana-pādaḥ

Thus Patañjali’s view of Yoga in the section on the Means to accomplish.

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