The mind has the characteristics that make other things possible……

samskara

“The mind has the characteristics that make other things possible.
To develop tendencies or Saṃskāra.
The mind can also adapt and change or Pariṇāma.
Saṃskāra is the opposite of Pariṇāma.”
– TKV Desikachar Madras December 8th 1979 on Sāṃkhya and Yoga

In Yoga is is said that everything that happens is from the mind……

citta

“In Yoga it is said that everything that happens is from the mind.
Citta is the mindstuff, the perceptual mechanism.
That which makes us see and remember.
Vṛtti is the activity, transformation, motion, modification, that is caused in Citta.
The mind is the main function for seeing,
without it the senses are useless.
The mind can develop words or ideas.
The mind can remember.”
– TKV Desikachar Madras December 8th 1979 on Sāṃkhya and Yoga

In Sāṃkhya it is said that every problem comes from the Guṇa……

guna

“In Sāṃkhya it is said that every problem comes from the Guṇa and their interplay.”
– TKV Desikachar Madras December 8th 1979 on Sāṃkhya and Yoga

Everything we see has three qualities or natures.

guna

“Everything we see,
including the instrument of Mind (Citta),
has three qualities or natures.
In Saṃskṛta they are known as Guṇa.”
– TKV Desikachar Madras December 1st 1979 on Sāṃkhya and Yoga

Meditation can be related to the Guṇa…..

dhyana

“Meditation (Dhyāna) can be related to the Guṇa.
The object of our inquiry must be related or,
in accordance with what we want to produce.”
– TKV Desikachar Madras December 1st 1979 on Sāṃkhya and Yoga

The Nature of the three Guṇa are Gratifying, Painful and Depressing….

samkhya_small

“The Nature of the three Guṇa are Gratifying, Painful and Depressing,
(they serve) Brightness, Endeavour and Restraint,
and are mutually Supressing, Supporting, Producing, Co-existing, Mobile.”
– Sāṃkhya Kārikā of Īśvara Kṛṣṇa Śloka Twelve

The practice of Yoga can influence the Guṇa……

guna

“The practice of Yoga can influence the Guṇa.
i.e. The room where you practice can affect the Guṇa by photographs, colour of paint, smell.”
– TKV Desikachar Madras December 1st 1979 on Sāṃkhya and Yoga

All matter has the three qualities or Guṇa

guna

“All matter has the three qualities (Guṇa).
The effects can be based on what we see, eat, hear,
and the effects of what we see, eat, hear.”
– TKV Desikachar Madras December 1st 1979 on Sāṃkhya and Yoga

Its the combination (of Guṇa) thats important……

guna

“Its the combination (of Guṇa) thats important.
There is the simile of the oil lamp in the Sāṃkhya Kārikā Śloka 13.
The cotton wick – Light Property (Sattva)
The basin or bowl – Heavy Property (Tamas)
The oil – Flows this way or that (Rajas)
The moment you dip the cotton in the oil it takes on that property.
Thus the Guṇa work together to produce the flame.”
– TKV Desikachar Madras November 24th 1979 on Sāṃkhya and Yoga

Even Mantra are classified into Guṇa…..

mantra

“Even Mantra are classified into Guṇa.
This needs to be considered when using Mantra for the individual.”
– TKV Desikachar Madras November 24th 1979 on Sāṃkhya and Yoga

Non-perception is because of subtlety…….

samkhya_small

Non-perception (of Nature) is because of subtlety,
not because of non-existence,
since it (Nature) is perceived through its effects.
These effects are intelligence and the rest.
Some are similar to Nature and some dissimilar.
– Sāṃkhya Kārikā of Īśvara Kṛṣṇa Śloka Eight

Comment from Gaudapādācarya Bhāsya:
Even in the world, a son is similar as well as dissimilar to his father.
The causes of similarity and dissimilarity we shall explain later.

Yoga is not about not enjoying the world because we see it……

drsya

Yoga is not about not enjoying the world because we see it as it really is.
Rather it is seeing the world as it really is and still enjoying it.
– Reflection on Yoga Sūtra Chapter Two verse 18

Sāṃkhya as an inquiry into the Yoga of Spirit and Matter

samkhya_small

What is it that weapons do not cleave?
That fire does not burn?
That waters do not wet?
That wind does not whither?
– Commentary on Bhagavad Gītā Chapter Two verse 23

The previous post offered a meditative reflection on this Śloka (verse).
Expanding further on this Śloka from notes from my 121 studies over 4 years of this Sacred Scripture with my teacher allows us to consider more deeply the context for and meaning within the Śloka.

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Sāṃkhya arguments against the existence of God……

samkhya_small

According to Nandala Sinha (Sāṃkhya Philosophy 1915), the following arguments were given by the Sāṃkhya philosophers against the idea of an eternal, self-caused, creator God:

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We may not perceive what is within the range of the senses……

samkhya_small

We may not perceive what is within the range of the senses (Pratyakṣa) because we are:
“Disinterested.
Overly interested.
Blind or deaf to what is in front of us.
Distracted.
Not relating with what is there.
Seeing something between.
Letting something else dominate.
Confusing with something similar.”
– Sāṃkhya Kārikā of Īśvara Kṛṣṇa Śloka Seven

Sāṃkhya is about living more within that which doesn’t change……

samkhya

Sāṃkhya is about living more within that which doesn’t change,
rather than living more within that which does change.

knowledge of what is beyond the range of the senses is from inference….

samkhya_small

What about the supersensible?
“But, knowledge of what is beyond the range of the senses is from inference based on generalised correlation;
and knowledge not attainable even by that is attained though the eyes of another or authentic texts.”
– Sāṃkhya Kārikā of Īśvara Kṛṣṇa Śloka Six

Direct observation involves selective ascertainment through the senses…..

samkhya_small

Direct observation involves selective ascertainment through the senses.
Inference is of three kinds:
– The past shaping the future
– Projecting the whole from the part
– Forming a comparison from a similar.
Authentic authority is trusted words and teachings.”
– Sāṃkhya Kārikā of Īśvara Kṛṣṇa Śloka Five

The means to right perception involves direct observation……

samkhya_small

“The means to right perception involves direct observation,
inference and authentic authority.”
– Sāṃkhya Kārikā of Īśvara Kṛṣṇa Śloka Four

Primordial Nature is uncreated and yet creates…..

samkhya_small

“Primordial Nature is uncreated and yet creates.
Awareness is neither.”
– Sāṃkhya Kārikā of Īśvara Kṛṣṇa Śloka Three

The usual means to reduce suffering are linked to impurity, decay and excess.

samkhya

“The usual means to reduce suffering are linked to impurity, decay and excess.”
– Sāṃkhya Kārikā of Īśvara Kṛṣṇa Śloka Two

Within and around us is an absence of certainty and permanence.

samkhya

“Within and around us is an absence of certainty and permanence.”
– Sāṃkhya Kārikā of Īśvara Kṛṣṇa Śloka One

Sāṃkhya postulates what appears and what causes it to appear……

samkhya

Sāṃkhya postulates what appears and what causes it to appear.”
– TKV Desikachar Madras November 24th 1979 on Sāṃkhya and Yoga

Change is universal but not the same for everybody…..

parinama

Question to TKV Desikachar on Pariṇāma:
“Change is universal but not the same for everybody.
Pariṇāma gives life to Saṃskāra.
Saṃskāra gives stability to Pariṇāma.
So there is an order in any change.
If there is no Pariṇāma or Saṃskāra there is no Vidyā or Avidyā.”
TKV Desikachar France 1983

The aim of Yoga and Sāṃkhya is to be yoked to the more discerning……

samkhya

The aim of Yoga and Sāṃkhya is to be yoked to the more discerning aspects of the psyche, rather than just to the more grasping aspects of the psyche.

In the former the tendency of the Buddhi to discern discriminately dominates the tendency of Ahaṃkāra to grasp indiscriminately. In the latter the tendency of the Ahaṃkāra to grasp dominates the tendency of the Buddhi to discern.

The former is a state known as Buddhi Sattva where the clarity of discernment dominates the indiscriminate grasping nature of the Ahaṃkāra. The latter is a state of Buddhi Tamas, where the discerning qualities of the Buddhi are obscured by the grasping nature of the Ahaṃkāra.

Thus our Yoga Sādhana has but one aim, that of the reduction of the obscuration of Tamas (apart from deep sleep) in the Buddhi. This reduction of Tamas facilitates the ascent of the clarity of Sattva, as in the metaphor of the reduction of the cloud facilitates the ascent of the sun discussed within yesterdays post.

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