What does Patañjali mean by Pratipakṣa Bhāvanam in Yoga Sūtra C2 v33?

Yoga Sūtra Study Question 9.

patanjali-1 What does Patañjali mean by Pratipakṣa Bhāvanam in Yoga Sūtra Chapter Two verse 33?
Discuss.
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Show how The word Hāna in Yoga Sūtra C2 v25 has the meaning ’giving up’.

Yoga Sūtra Study Question 8.

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Show how The word Hāna in Yoga Sūtra Chapter Two verse 25 has the meaning ’giving up’.
What is the ’giving up’ in question?
How is it obtained?
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Show how Yoga Sūtra C2 v10 and v11 play a pivotal role in the teachings in this chapter.

Yoga Sūtra Study Question 7.

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Show how Yoga Sūtra Chapter Two verse 10 and verse 11 play a pivotal role in the
evolution of the teachings in the Sādhana aspect of Chapter Two.
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Translate and develop Yoga Sūtra C2 v6

Yoga Sūtra Study Question 6.

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Translate and develop Yoga Sūtra Chapter Two verse 6
Dṛg Darśana Śaktyoḥ Eka Ātmatā Iva Asmitā
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Explain and develop the context of Rṭaṃbhara in Yoga Sūtra C1 v48.

Yoga Sūtra Study Question 5.

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Explain and develop the context of Ṛtaṃ Bhara in Yoga Sūtra C1 verse 48.
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Explain and develop the context of Antarāya in Yoga Sūtra C1 v29-30

Yoga Sūtra Study Question 4.

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Explain and develop the context of Antarāya in Yoga Sūtra Chapter One verse 29 and verse 30.
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Place the term Śraddhā in the teaching of Patañjali.

Yoga Sūtra Study Question 3.


Place the term Śraddhā, from Yoga Sūtra Chapter One verses 20-22, in the teaching of Patañjali.
Show the difference between this notion and that of Īśvara Praṇidhānā.
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The concepts of Practice and Dispassion are co-essential in the teaching of Patañjali……

Yoga Sūtra Study Question 2.

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The concepts of Abhyāsa (Practice) and Vairāgya (Dispassion) in Yoga Sūtra Chapter One verses 12-16
are co-essential in the teaching of Patañjali.
Discuss their relationship and list and comment on the attitudes that support their practice.
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Summarise the first four verses of Chapter One of the Yoga Sūtra……

Yoga Sūtra Study Question 1.

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The first four verses of Chapter One of the Yoga Sūtra are said to encapsulate the essence of the whole chapter.
Summarise them in a way so as to interest someone who knows little about Yoga.
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Prāṇāyāma is the key to the door of Dhāraṇā.

seated_pranayama
Prāṇāyāma is the key to the door of Dhāraṇā.

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I feel reflecting on the recent three posts on Īśvara Praṇidhānā……

kailash_manasarovar

I feel reflecting on the recent three posts on Īśvara Praṇidhānā from TKV Desikachar in relation to our actions needs to consider the Sat Viniyoga or appropriate application of the Citta or psyche in terms of:

Vikalpa or the ability to skilfully use imagination and fantasy.
Pramāṇa or the ability to skilfully use right perception.
Smṛti or the ability to skilfully use our memory of experiences.

And the Sat Viniyoga or appropriate application of Time In terms of its three faces – Past, Present and Future.
These two aspects psyche and time offer a myriad of combinations for reflection such as:

  • Past – “īśvara Praṇidhānā – How do we take the fruit of our action?”
    How skilful is my use of Pramāṇa around being present with possible impacts of previous actions?
  • Present – “The relationship we have developed with the fruits of our actions is īśvara Praṇidhānā
    How skilful is my use of Smṛti around being present with possible effects of current actions?
  • Future – “īśvara Praṇidhānā – What is our attitude towards our own action?”
    How skilful is my use of Vikalpa around possible outcomes of future actions?

Serve Yoga and Yoga will serve you.

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Serve Yoga and Yoga will serve you.
tat-artha eva-dṛśyasya-ātmā
“That purpose of the seen is indeed for our essence.”
Yoga Sūtra Chapter Two verse 21

The Yoga Sūtra become as if metaphysical Mantra when they can be……

Patanjali Yoga Sutra

Yoga Sūtra Chapter One verse 28
tat-japaḥ tat-artha-bhāvanam |
That repetition is for cultivation of its purpose.
“The Yoga Sūtra become as if metaphysical Mantra,
when they can be an internal intonation,
as well as an external edification.”

Avidyā is the illusion of recognising the……

avidya

Avidyā is the illusion of recognising:
the ephemeral as the eternal,
the profane as the profound,
pain as pleasure and
the silhouette as the source.”
Yoga Sūtra Chapter Two verse 5

Prāṇāyāma is the interface between Āsana and Dhyāna and an important……

Prāṇāyāma is the interface between Āsana and Dhyāna and an important (missing?) link in the evolution of one towards the other.

Patañjali reminds us of the pitfalls of the illusion of……

avidya

Patañjali reminds us of the pitfalls of the illusion (Avidyā) of
recognising (Khyāti) psyche (Anātma) as awareness (Ātma).
Yoga Sūtra Chapter Two verse 5

From Meditation (Dhyānam), arises Integration (Samādhi), merging the……

dhyana

From Meditation (Dhyānam),
arises Integration (Samādhi),
merging the experience of,
Moments of Containment (Nirodha Kṣana)
without Transformation (Pariṇāma).

The practice of Bhakti Dhyānam outlined in the Yoga Sūtra Chapter One……

mantra

“The practice of Bhakti Dhyānam outlined in the Yoga Sūtra Chapter One
can utilise either Veda Mantra or Tantra Mantra.
The Veda focus is one of external harmony with the forces of nature (Tri Guṇa) and
the Tantra focus is one of internal empowerment within the forces of nature (Tri Guṇa).”

Tapas – the effort to reduce something.

Tapas – the effort to reduce something.
Yoga Sūtra Chapter Two verse 1

The first four verses in the Yoga Sūtra Chapter One are very significant……

The first four verses in the Yoga Sūtra Chapter One are very significant.

If what is offered here interests then proceed.

Also the first four Sūtra summarise the whole thrust of the teaching.

  • Verse 1. Starting Point.
  • Now follow the teachings of Yoga.
  • Verse 2. Goal and Means.
  • Yoga is the containment of fluctuations in the psyche.
  • Verse 3. Outcome.
  • Then the seer abides in its own character.
  • Verse 4. Obstacles.
  • At other times there is identification with the fluctuations.

Suffering is the starting point……

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“Suffering is the starting point for the Yoga journey of four steps from:
the symptom (Duḥkha or suffering);
through to the cause (Avidyā or illusion);
to the path (Kaivalya or independence);
and the means (Aṣṭāṅga or 8 limbed path) for Viveka or discrimination.
This fourfold process is at the heart of Yoga, Āyurveda and Buddhism.”

Yoga Sūtra of Patañjali – The Raj Quartet Book Four of Four

CHAPTER 4 – THE DIVISION OF THE SPOILS

The focus for these four short articles has been the Yoga Sūtra of Patañjali. This is regarded as a primary text defining Yoga and its purpose especially with regard to the mind and the transformation of those things which block our understanding. Its four chapters are seen as a complete teaching on Royal Yoga, known as Rāja Yoga, hence the borrowing of the title from the author Paul Scott.

The first part of the quartet outlined chapter one, called Samādhi Pādaḥ. its 51 verses introduced the mind, its fluctuations, problems and possibilities. Entitled “The Jewel in the Crown”, it focused on the theme of mindfulness. Its teachings chart the transformation of the mind towards a flawless jewel in the crown of our being.

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Yoga Sūtra of Patañjali – The Raj Quartet Book Three of Four

CHAPTER III – THE TOWERS OF SILENCE

This article looks at chapter three. Titled Vibhūti Pādaḥ, its 55 verses explore the possibilities of a mind with more refined qualities of mindfulness and clarity. Here it is not the experiences which control the mind. The mind is able to focus in a particular direction and be freer from the effects of external and internal disturbances.

In this is the image of the mind being a support or structure which can maintain its containment and flow within the vagaries of inner and outer experience. A tower gives the impression of strength and consistency, it also indicates the possibility of being able to see beyond the normal view.

The student in the third chapter has experienced the nature of the meditative mind and has a strength and view which is beyond the range of normal perception. The mind can be a likened tower of silence.

The questions in this chapter are firstly, what are the possibilities for a mind with this potential and secondly:

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Yoga Sūtra of Patañjali – The Raj Quartet Book Two of Four

CHAPTER II – THE DAY OF THE SCORPION

This article looks at chapter two. Titled Sādhana Pādaḥ, its 55 verses reflect the theme of self responsibility in cultivating the preparatory means for accessing and maintaining mindfulness.

In astrology the sign of the scorpion has at its ruler the planet Pluto. The influence of Pluto in our chart and life is associated with the creative forces of the body, with enforced change, the unconscious and beginning and ends of phases of life. Committing ourselves to Sãdhana or practice in the direction of Yoga will bring us into contact with these issues.

The zodiac sign of Scorpio is itself associated with a sense of purpose, persistence and discrimination. In chapter two of the Yoga Sūtra of Patañjali  is also concerned with these aspects from the viewpoint of developing these qualities through doing something ourselves. So that what is not possible becomes possible.

This is Sādhana, providing the means to reach somewhere we haven’t reached before. How to proceed?

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Yoga Sūtra of Patañjali – The Raj Quartet Book One of Four

CHAPTER I – THE JEWEL IN THE CROWN

My apologies to Paul Scott for plagiarism. However the Pādaḥ (four parts) which comprise the Yoga Sūtra of Patañjali are often known as Rāja Yoga. Also one view of this text is that Patañjali had four students and that the chapters of the YogaSūtra are arranged as four sādhana, each one according to the level students personal development and thus offering a different role. In this context the title is apt, with its four chapters Patañjali has composed a complete teaching on royal or classical Yoga.

I will attempt through four articles to present an introduction to theses teachings through which the student can form their own understanding. As is the tradition I first offer my respects to Patañjali and the lineage of teachers who have helped to carry these insights to our age and culture. I acknowledge that we can only surmise as to exactly what Patañjali meant and thank my teacher TKV Desikachar  for guiding me towards this understanding.

This article looks at Chapter One, titled Samādhi Pādaḥ or the book on integration, its 51 verses reflecting the theme of mindfulness.

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